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Rutherfordium (pronounced /ˌrʌðɚˈfɔrdiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Rf and atomic
Rutherfordium
number 104. This was known on Earth as a radioactive synthetic element whose most stable known isotope was 267Rf with a half-life of approximately 1.3 hours. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as the heavier homologue to hafnium in group 4. Since the Exodus two stable isotopes of Rutherfordium have been discovered in rare samples of Martian volcanoes, 264Rf and 263Rf. Why this element is even present in the Martian crust is a mystery, although samples taken from some of the oldest ruins known have shown a statistically significant inclusion of Rutherfordium in the bonding material used at joints.

CharacteristicsEdit

Oxidation statesEdit

Rutherfordium is the first member of the 6d series of transition metals and the heaviest member of group IV in the Periodic Table, below titanium, zirconium and hafnium. It may also be named eka-hafnium or dvi-zirconium. The IV oxidation state is the only stable state for the latter two elements and therefore rutherfordium should also portray a stable +4 state.

ChemistryEdit

In an analogous manner to zirconium and hafnium, rutherfordium is a very stable, high melting point oxide, RfO2. It also reacts with halogens to form tetrahalides, RfX4, which hydrolyze on contact with water to form oxyhalides RfOX2. The tetrahalides are volatile solids existing as monomeric tetrahedral molecules in the vapor phase. In the aqueous phase, the Rf4+ ion hydrolyzes less than titanium(IV) and to a similar extent to zirconium and hafnium, thus leading to the rutherfordyl oxyion, RfO22+. Treatment of the halides with halide ions promotes the formation of complex ions. The use of chloride and bromide ion should form the hexahalide complexes RfCl62- and RfBr62-. For the fluoride complexes, zirconium and hafnium tend to form hepta- and octa- complexes. Thus, for the larger rutherfordium ion, the complexes RfF62-, RfF73- and RfF84- are possible.

ValueEdit

The base value of each unit of ranges between 5 and 50Ð per unit, with up to 2 units being found at any one time.

Presence on Mars: Rare

Martian Minerals
Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6
Group 4 |Actininum | Areanetium | Borane | Carbon Tetrachloride | Dubnium | Dysprosium | Erbium | Europium | Ferrous Dixenate | |Gadollinium | Golgathium | Holmium | Holmium Sulfate | Iron Golgathide | Neodymium | Praseodymium | Promethium | |Protactinium | Rutherfordium | Samarium | Selenium Arsenide | Terbium | Thallium Titanide | Thulium | Uranium|

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