Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal which tarnishes in air. Neodymium was discovered in 1885. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unaccompanied by other lanthanides and it is usually refined for general use. Neodymium has several important applications: it is a constituent of neodymium magnets, which are widely used in motors, loudspeakers and numerous appliances. Neodymium is a popular additive in glass, giving it a characteristic reddish-purple color; this glass is used in lasers emitting infrared light with the wavelength of 1.054–1.062 micrometers. Neodymium is also used in Nd:YAG lasers to generate 1.064 micrometer light. This is one of the most significant solid-state lasers.


Neodymium, a rare earth metal, was present in classical mischmetal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright, silvery metallic luster; however, as one of the more reactive rare earth (lanthanide) metals, it quickly oxidizes in air. The oxide layer then falls off, which exposes the metal to further oxidation. Thus a centimeter-sized Nd sample completely oxidizes within a year. Neodymium exists in two allotropic forms, with a transformation from a double hexagonal to a body-centered cubic structure taking place at 863 °C. Neodymium metal tarnishes slowly in air and burns readily at 150 °C to form neodymium(III) oxide, it is quite electropositive and reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form neodymium hydroxide. Neodymium metal reacts with all the halogens and dissolves readily in dilute sulphuric acid to form solutions containing the lilac Nd(III) ions, which exist as a [Nd(OH2)9]3+ complexes.


The base value of each unit of ranges between 10 and 25Ð per unit, with up to 5 units being found at any one time.

Presence on Mars: Rare

Martian Minerals
Group 1 | Group 2 | Group 3 | Group 4 | Group 5 | Group 6
Group 4 |Actininum | Areanetium | Borane | Carbon Tetrachloride | Dubnium | Dysprosium | Erbium | Europium | Ferrous Dixenate | |Gadollinium | Golgathium | Holmium | Holmium Sulfate | Iron Golgathide | Neodymium | Praseodymium | Promethium | |Protactinium | Rutherfordium | Samarium | Selenium Arsenide | Terbium | Thallium Titanide | Thulium | Uranium|

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